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Articoli con TAG: microbiota

Obesità, microbiota e stress ossidativo
Obesity, microbiota and oxidative stress
<p>Only in recent years, scientific societies and governments of many countries have considered obesity and its precursors, namely overweight, such as a disease that causes other diseases and reduces life quality and expectancy. According to the latest researches, obesity is a complex disease, with multifactorial etiology, not exclusively linked to eating disorders and lifestyle, which contribute inflammatory, infectious, toxic and also mental phenomena. Among many pathogenetic and pathophysiological invoked mechanisms, the effects of oxidative stress have recently received special attention. The imbalance between the production of free oxygen and nitrogen radicals and the physiological contrast mechanisms could actually play a causal role in the development of obesity by stimulating the deposition of white adipose tissue and altering the assumption of food. Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are also key factors in the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cancer. Despite the correlation between obesity and oxidative stress, none of the biochemical markers of oxidative damage can be considered predictive of obesity; on the contrary, some markers seem to predict the development and progression of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in overweight and obese subjects. Recent observations also demonstrate the existence of quantitative and qualitative differences in the intestinal microbiota between individuals at high and low risk of development of obesity and related complications. Therefore, the intestinal microbiota might play a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 41(3) 199-207
Rassegne - Reviews
Studio preliminare del microbiota intestinale, cutaneo e della mucosa orale in pazienti affetti da Pemfigo Volgare e Pemfigoide Bolloso
Preliminary study of the microbiome in the gut, skin and oral mucosa of patients affected by Pemphigus Vulgaris and Bullous Pemphigoid
<p>Introduction: the study of the human microbiome is one of the most dynamic current topics in biomedical research. A significant challenge in this field is the development of cost effective method for a robust interrogation of microbiota composition. Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have allowed for efficient and molecular-based analysisof microbial communities. Association between diseases and imbalance of the microbial populationsare today wellinvestigated.<br />Methods: Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) and Bullous Pemphigoid (BP) are two rare autoantibody-mediated blisteringskin diseases. In this pilot study, we characterized the intestinal, cutaneous and oral mucosal microbiota compositionsin PV/BP patients, in order to evaluate the potential role of the bacterial composition in these dermatologicaldisorders. Particularly, we performed a high-throughput sequencing analysis of the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of16S rRNA for the evaluation of bacterial composition of stool, skin and oral mucosa samples in PV (n=12) and BP(n=8) patients.<br />Results: a similar composition of the intestinal microbiota was observed in PV and BP patients. The evaluation of skin lesions revealed a prevalence of Firmicutes phylum in both patients&rsquo; groups. In the cutaneous microbiota, we identified a significant decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum compared to healthy controls.<br />Conclusions: the results obtained from our standardized NGS pipeline, reinforced by correlation with other clinical and biochemicalparameters, will contribute to clarify the mechanisms of these rare diseases.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 43(4) 406-412
Contributi Scientifici - Scientific Papers