Editor-in-chief
Maria Stella Graziani

Deputy Director
Martina Zaninotto

Associate Editors
Ferruccio Ceriotti
Davide Giavarina
Bruna Lo Sasso
Giampaolo Merlini
Martina Montagnana
Andrea Mosca
Paola Pezzati
Rossella Tomaiuolo
Matteo Vidali

International Advisory Board Khosrow Adeli Canada
Sergio Bernardini Italy
Marcello Ciaccio Italy
Eleftherios Diamandis Canada
Philippe Gillery France
Kjell Grankvist Sweden
Hans Jacobs The Netherlands
Eric Kilpatrick UK
Magdalena Krintus Poland
Giuseppe Lippi Italy
Mario Plebani Italy
Sverre Sandberg Norway
Ana-Maria Simundic Croatia
Tommaso Trenti Italy
Cas Weykamp The Netherlands
Maria Willrich USA
Paul Yip Canada


Publisher
Biomedia srl
Via L. Temolo 4, 20126 Milano

Responsible Editor
Giuseppe Agosta

Editorial Secretary
Andrea di Bello
Biomedia srl
Via L. Temolo 4, 20126 Milano
Tel. 0245498282
email: biochimica.clinica@sibioc.it

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ISSN print: 0393 – 0564
ISSN digital: 0392- 7091



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Articoli in pubblicazione

RASSEGNE
Emoglobinopatie: quadri clinici e ruolo del laboratorio tra realtà e prospettive future
Hemoglobinopathies: clinical pictures and role of the laboratory between reality and future prospects.

The term hemoglobinopathies generally includes all the defects of the globin genes. In most of the cases, these defects are transmitted as autosomal recessive patterns and are in the heterozygous state, clinically asymptomatic. A substantial variability in hematological and clinical phenotypes is observed when defects occur in the homozygous state, in heterozygous compounds or are associated with variations in non-globin genes. The marked hematological, molecular and clinical heterogeneity of hemoglobinopathies requires experience and competence for the use of different technologies, the organization of the diagnostic procedures and for the clinical management of patients as well. There is no doubt that the numerous hemoglobin variants and different combinations observed nowadays are the result of migratory movements that have taken place in recent decades with the arrival in Italy and Europe of important numbers of subjects, mostly from territories where hemoglobin defects are particularly present. The laboratory tests, defined as 1st level or primary screen, are still the fundamental step of the diagnostic approach to hemoglobinopathies and cannot be avoided. However, confirmatory tests and molecular characterization are always required for a diagnostic approach characterized by the combined use of hematological, biochemical and molecular techniques. The laboratory will thus be able to provide the clinician with adequate elements for patient management, in the different contexts of prevention, counseling or therapeutic choices. The laboratory dedicated to hemoglobinopathies is oriented towards precision medicine by acting on levels of increasing complexity, thus providing useful knowledge for the benefit of personalized medicine.

TAG: emoglobinopatie   quadri clinici   ruolo del laboratorio    
Biochimica Clinica
DOI: 10.19186/BC_2020.104
Pubblicato online il: 26.02.2021
Rassegne - Reviews
 
CONTRIBUTI SCIENTIFICI
Valutazione degli anticorpi anti SARS-COV-2 nell’ambito di un progetto di costituzione di una banca di plasma iperimmune
SARS-COV-2 antibodies in patients candidates as donors of immune plasma

Background: in this study SARS-CoV-2 serology was investigated, using three different methods, in a cohort of convalescent patients from SARS-CoV-2 infection, recruited for the establishment of a hyperimmune plasma bank.
Methods: SARS-CoV-2 serology was investigated in 326 subjects using three commercial methods: MAGLUMI (MAG) 2019-nCoV IgM CLIA, MAGLUMI 2019-nCoV IgG CLIA and DiaSorin (SOR) LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG. Moreover, 143 subjects were tested using a plaque reduction micro neutralization assay.
Results: MAG IgG test and SOR IgG test showed a good agreement (Cohen's K index = 0.65, CI 95% 0.55 – 0.78). Considering SOR IgG test versus micro neutralization test, the observed cut-off values were: 85 AU/mL for a neutralizing titer of 1/80; 108 AU/mL for 1/160 titer and 144 AU/mL for 1/320 titer. Considering MAG IgG test versus micro neutralization test, the observed cut-off values were: 4 AU/mL for a neutralizing titer of 1/80, 5 AU/mL for 1/160 titer and 7 AU/mL for 1/320 titer.
Conclusions: in our experience, the MAG and SOR tests showed good agreement in identifying subjects with IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Obtained results confirmed a good correlation between the antibody concentration detected by the SOR IgG and the neutralizing titer determined by the plaque reduction test.

TAG: anticorpi   SARS-COV-2   plasma iperimmune  
Biochimica Clinica
DOI: 10.19186/BC_2021.008
Pubblicato online il: 26.02.2021
Contributi Scientifici - Scientific Papers
 
Comparison of albumin-bilirubin grade with Child-Pugh and Model for End Stage Liver Disease scores in chronic liver disease

Introduction: chronic liver diseases are characterized by injury to hepatocytes, chronic inflammation and progressive substitution of liver parenchyma by scar tissue or fibrosis. Albumin-bilirubin grade (ALBI) includes serum albumin and bilirubin levels, two most commonly performed and cost-effective parameters measured in the Clinical Laboratory. This study aims to establish an association between ALBI grade and Model for End stage Liver Disease (MELD) and Child-Pugh (CP) scores among chronic liver disease patients.
Methods: after ethical approval, information such as age, gender, provisional diagnosis, serum albumin and serum total bilirubin levels, prognostic scores of patients with liver disease were obtained from patient records. Albumin-bilirubin grading system was calculated as following: [log10 bilirubin (μmol/L) × 0.66] + [albumin (g/L) × −0.0852].
Results: this cross-sectional descriptive study recruited 100 patients with chronic liver disease and 100 healthy controls. Alcoholism was the common aetiology among the cases. ALBI was calculated; the mean (SD) grade among cases and controls were -0.94 (0.15) and -3.17 (0.23) respectively with a p-value of <0.001.There was statistically significant difference in ALBI grades between CP scores B and C (p value = 0.001). Pearson’s correlation between MELD score and ALBI grade showed a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.723 with significance 0.001).
Discussion: our study demonstrated that there was a significant association between ALBI grade and the most commonly used prognostic scores such as CP and MELD.

TAG: albumin-bilirubin   chronic liver disease  
Biochimica Clinica
DOI: 10.19186/BC_2020.100
Pubblicato online il: 10.02.2021
Contributi Scientifici - Scientific Papers
 
DOCUMENTI
Integrità della ricerca: comprendere la nostra comune responsabilità per un sistema accademico sostenibile.
Research Integrity: Understanding our shared responsibility for a sustainable scholarly ecosystem.

This report encourages everyone involved in research to broaden their view of what it means to conduct research with integrity and to consider how certain research evaluation instruments and incentive mechanisms are leading to a rise in deviant publication behavior. Research integrity is a crucial topic for all those involved in the creation, delivery and assessment of academic literature. Without a trusted record of research, it is impossible to reliably build on previous ideas, replicate results, or effectively utilize the outcomes of research. The traditional focus on fabrication, falsification and plagiarism is no longer enough – new forms of manipulation are emerging as some stakeholders seek an unfair advantage. Our report is intended as a guide – first, to expose the range of tactics used; second, to describe our varied and collaborative responsibilities; and third, to highlight current and future technological enhancements that will help us all uphold the principles of research integrity. Many of the tactics we describe are subtle, often manifesting as small infringements, but when accumulated over large quantities, their effects can be substantial and rewarding. The future will be challenging as the digital transformation of research continues to accelerate our progress. Collaboration is essential since no single party can be expected to police and enforce research integrity – it is a shared responsibility that will require us to come together to develop new guidelines on what is considered unethical and decide on the appropriate actions to take when community norms are breached.

TAG: ricerca   sistema accademico sostenibile   pubblicazioni  
Biochimica Clinica
DOI: 10.19186/BC_2021.003
Pubblicato online il: 09.02.2021
Documenti - Documents
 
CASI CLINICI
Interferenza analitica sul conteggio dei leucociti
Analytical interference on leucocyte count

Chronic lymphoproliferative disorders typically affect elderly patients with a median age at the diagnosis of 71 years. These disorders include a number of conditions characterized by an abnormal proliferation of lymphocytes towards a monoclonal lymphocytosis. The case of an 83-year-old man affected by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is presented; the peripheral blood cells count, performed on the analyzer Sysmex XN-20, showed significant differences between the white nucleated red (WNR) and white differentiation (WDF) channels that did not allow the differential counting of leukocytes. On the opposite, the reflex analysis channel white progenitor cell (WPC), returned the correct white blood cell count. Actually, when the peripheral blood sample was diluted (1:5) and resubmitted to analysis, leukocytes count resulting from WNR and WDF analysis channels corresponded to that obtained in the reflex WPC analysis channel on the undiluted sample. To verify if the instrumental anomaly found in the cell counting could be associated to an elevated plasma concentrations of immunoglobulins, a serum protein electrophoresis was performed, showing the presence of four monoclonal components. These data demonstrate that the WPC channel is an important tool for the clinical laboratory, since it is able to give a correct result even when interferents are present.

TAG: leucociti   leucemia linfatica cronica   interferenza analitica  
Biochimica Clinica
DOI: 10.19186/BC_2020.098
Pubblicato online il: 14.01.2021
Casi Clinici - Case Report