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BC: Articoli scritti da S. Masotti

Calcolo e valutazione dei valori di riferimento della troponina cardiaca I (cTnI) misurata in un gruppo di volontari sani italiani con metodi immunometrici ad alta sensibilità: uno studio multicentrico
Establishment and evaluation of cardiac troponin I reference values measured in a group of Italian healthy volunteers using high-sensitivity methods: a multi-center study.
<p>Introduction: this study compares the cardiac troponin I (cTnI) values measured with three high-sensitivity (hs) different methods in apparently healthy volunteers enrolled in a multicenter study.<br />Methods: heparinized plasma samples were collected from 1511 volunteers in 8 Italian clinical institutions (mean age 51.5 years, SD 14.2, range 18-86, female to male ratio 0.94). All volunteers denied chronic or acute diseases and had normal values of routine laboratory tests and ECG. The reference laboratory of the study (Laboratorio Fondazione CNR Regione Toscana G. Monasterio, Pisa, Italy) assayed all plasma samples with three hs-methods: Architect hs-cTnI, Access hs-cTnIand ADVIA Centaur XPT hs-cTnI. After the exclusion of outlier values, calculation of 99th percentile (Upper Reference Limit, URL) values was performed using both robust nonparametric and bias corrected and accelerated bootstrap methods.<br />Results: large between-method differences were found. ADVIA Centaur measured higher cTnI values (up to 2-fold) than the two other methods. cTnI values were significantly higher in men than in women, and progressively increased with age over 55 years. Moreover, 99th percentile URL values also depended on the statistical approach used for calculation (robust non-parametric versusbootstrap). All 99th percentile URL values calculated with non-parametric robust method were on average slightly lower than those suggested by manufacturers (mean difference 4.2 ng/L, standard error 1.7, p=0.0273).<br />Conclusion: clinicians should be advised that plasma samples from the same patient should be measured for hs-cTnI in the same laboratory. Specific clinical studies are needed to establish the most appropriate statistical approach to calculate 99th percentile URL values for hs-cTnI methods.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 44(2) S032-S047
Contributi Scientifici - Scientific Papers
La misura combinata dei biomarcatori cardio-specifici è utile nei pazienti con sospetto di malattie cardiovascolari
The combined measurement of cardio-specific biomarkers is a useful tool in patients with suspected cardiovascular disease
<p>A huge amount of experimental and clinical evidences clearly demonstrate that the measurement of cardio-specific biomarkers [cardiac natriuretic peptides (CNP), and cardiac troponins (cTns)] can significantly and independently improve the diagnostic accuracy and risk stratification in cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, several recent studies report that the measurement of cardio-specific biomarkers has a beneficial impact also on management and outcome of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Considering the significant and independent information associated to cardio-specific biomarkers, several studies have recently reported that the combined assay of CNP and cTns may be cost effective not only for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cardiac disease, but also for screening in general population of individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Due to the higher cost of their measurement in comparison to other laboratory tests, the clinical appropriateness of the combined measurement of CNP and cTns should be accurately evaluated. Accordingly, an increase in clinical utilization of a laboratory test should be based not only on the peculiar pathophysiological characteristics of a biomarker, but also on the high performance of immunoassay methods used for the biomarker measurement. From a pathophysiological point of view, elevated CNP values indicate that some stressor substances or situations are having an adverse impact on cardiac function; while an increase in cTn levels above the cut-off value indicates that a sustained or powerful stress has actually produced a damage on cardiomyocytes (i.e. a myocardial injury). Consequently , the combined measurement of CNP and cTns gives complementary and distinct rather than redundant clinical information. These two distinct pathophysiological mechanisms also explain why cardiovascular risk is strongly increased in patients with both CNP and cTns elevated. In conclusions, the combined measurement of CNP and cTns is a useful tool for diagnosis, follow-up, and stratification of risk in all patients with suspected cardiac disease, especially those admitted to the emergence department.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 44(2) S017-S031
Rassegne - Reviews
Le troponine I e T sono biomarcatori cardiaci interscambiabili?
Are troponin I and T interchangeable biomarkers?
<p>The most recent international guidelines recommend that high-sensitivity (hs) methods should be preferred for the measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT) for the detection of myocardial injury and the differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes. Furthermore, these guidelines state that there is no significant difference in accuracy among hs cTnI and cTnT methods for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Myocardial injury is a prerequisite for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, but it is also a distinct entity. The 2018 Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction states that myocardial injury is detected when at least one value above the 99th percentile upper reference limit is measured in a patient by high-sensitivity methods for cTnI or cTnT. Occasionally, discrepancies between hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT test results can be found, when tested in the same blood sample. Several studies have reported discrepancies between hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT test results in some clinical conditions (especially chronic neuromuscular diseases) or even in apparently healthy subjects. This review, summarizes and discusses the biochemical, pathophysiological and analytical possible mechanisms causing discrepancies between hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT test results.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 44(2) S008-S016
Rassegne - Reviews
Valutazione del rischio cardiovascolare e del danno cardiaco asintomatico nella popolazione generale utilizzando la misura della troponina cardiaca con metodi ad alta sensibilità
Evaluation of cardiovascular risk and asymptomatic myocardial injury in the general population with high-sensitivity methods for cardiac troponin assay
<p>Only very recently the set-up of some immunoassay methods with high-sensitivity analytical performance allowed the accurate detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT) levels in healthy adult subjects. Several studies have demonstrated the association between the risk of major cardiovascular events and cardiac troponin concentrations even for biomarker values within the reference intervals. High-sensitivity cTnI and cTnT methods enable to monitor myocardial renewal and remodelling, and to promptly identify patients at highest risk to heart failure development. An early and effective treatment of individuals at higher cardiovascular risk may revert the initial myocardial remodelling and slow down heart failure progression. Dedicated trials are needed also in Italian population to demonstrate the efficiency of general population screening by means of cost benefit analysis for individuals at higher risk for heart failure progression.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 44(2) S086-S096
Documenti SIBioC - SIBioC Documents
Specifiche di qualità, terminologia e definizione dei metodi di misura delle troponine cardiache Ie T
Quality specifications, terminology and definition of the methods for the measurement of cardiac troponins
<p>All guidelines recommend that cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT) should be considered the preferred biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and also that the 99th upper reference population limit value for cardiac troponins should be measured with an imprecision &le;10 CV%. However, only after the year 2006, some cTn methods showed analytical performances in accordance with the quality specifications required by guidelines. The cTn methods with the best analytical performances (currently named &ldquo;high-sensitivity&rdquo; methods) should be preferred for the early diagnosis of ACS and also for risk stratification of cardiovascular disease both in general population and cardiac patients. The most recent international guidelines recommend that two basic criteria are needed to define the characteristics required for cTn immunoassays in order to be defined as &ldquo;high-sensitivity&rdquo; methods. The first criterion is that the total imprecision (CV) at the 99th percentile value should be &le;10%. The second criterion is that these methods should measure cTn concentrations at least in 50% (and ideally &gt;95%) of both healthy adult men and women with value above the assay&rsquo;s limit of detection. The aim of this SIBioC document is to discuss some critical aspects related to definition of &ldquo;high-sensitivity&rdquo; cTn methods, including: analytical performance, pathophysiological interpretations, and clinical relevance of &ldquo;high-sensitivity&rdquo; cTn assays with particular attention to routine practice of clinical laboratories in Italy, recommending the use of an accurate terminology to avoid the usage of potentially misleading terms.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 42(4) 335-342
Documenti SIBioC - SIBioC Documents
Valutazione delle caratteristiche analitiche dei metodi di misura delle troponine cardiache I e T: dalla teoria alla pratica di laboratorio. Documento congiunto del Gruppo di Studio Biomarcatori Cardiovascolari di SIBioC-Medicina di Laboratorio ed Europea
Evaluation of analytical performance of immunoassay methods for cardiac troponin I and T: from theory to laboratory practice. Joint document of SIBioC and European Ligand Assay Society
<p>All the national and international guidelines recommend that cardiac troponins (cTnI and cTnT) should be considered the preferred biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and also that the 99th upper reference population limit (URL) value for cardiac troponins should be measured with an imprecision &le;10 CV%. Indeed, the measurement of the 99th URL of cTnI and cTnT is a very hard analytical challenge due to low biomarker concentrations in healthy subjects. For this reason, only after the year 2006, some manufacturers set up the first new generation of cTnI and cTnT immunoassays with improved analytical sensitivity in accordance with the quality specifications indicated by international guidelines. The most recent international guidelines recommend that immunoassays for cTnI and cTnT measurement, able to completely satisfy these quality specifications, should be defined high-sensitivity methods. These methods should be preferred for early diagnosis of ACS syndrome and also for stratification of cardiovascular risk in both general population and cardiac patients. Therefore, understanding the analytical performance of immunoassay methods for cTnI and cTnT, especially at the low normal concentration range, is critically important for both laboratory professionals and clinicians. The aim of this document is to discuss some theoretical considerations related to the definition of analytical sensitivity, as well as some critical aspects concerning the experimental protocols commonly adopted for evaluation and comparison of analytical performances of cardiac troponin immunossays.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 42(2) 155-166
Documenti - Documents
Marcatori di rimodellamento e fibrosi cardiaca
Markers of cardiac remodeling and fibrosis
<p>Cardiac remodeling is considered the determinant of the clinical progression of heart failure. It is defined as a genome expression resulting in molecular, cellular and interstitial changes, clinically manifested as changes in size, shape and function of the heart. Ventricular remodeling occurs progressively in untreated patients after large myocardial infarction and in those with longstanding cardiomyopathy. Myocyte hypertrophy, cellular apoptosis and increased interstitial collagen deposition are the anatomopathological alterations leading to increased myocardial fibrosis. Myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis increase left ventricular volume and induce perturbation in the left ventricular chamber geometry, leading to cardiac dysfunction. As a result, the assessment of cardiac fibrosis holds important clinical value in patients with heart failure. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest in the development of new markers for cardiac fibrosis and a number of laboratory tests have been recently proposed. The aim of the present article is to discuss analytical performances and clinical relevance of these markers.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 41(1) 023-038
Rassegne - Reviews
Analytical and clinical evaluation of the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for galectin-3 determination
<p>This study tested if the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) method on the Architect platform meets the analytical and clinical quality goals required for the galectin-3 (GAL-3) use in clinical practice. We evaluated results obtained from 121 apparently healthy adults and 382 patients with heart failure (HF). All healthy subjects and patients showed GAL-3 concentrations in plasma above the limit of detection (1.9 &mu;g/L) and the limit of quantitation (2.4 &mu;g/L). GAL-3 in healthy subjects ranged between 6.4 and 40.6 &mu;g/L (median, 13.0 &mu;g/L, interquartile range, 11.2-15.2 &mu;g/L, 97.5th percentile, 33.7 &mu;g/L). GAL-3 values were found significantly increased in patients with chronic HF (median, 15.1 &mu;g/L, interquartile range, 11.7-19.4 &mu;g/L) compared to healthy subjects (P &lt;0.0001). HF patients with cardiac fibrosis, confirmed by magnetic resonance, showed significantly higher GAL-3 values (median, 15.3 &mu;g/L, interquartile range, 11.2-21.9 &mu;g/L) than those without cardiac fibrosis (median, 12.9 &mu;g/L, interquartile range, 11.2-15.0 &mu;g/L) (P=0.03). ROC analysis showed that GAL-3 discriminates the presence of cardiac fibrosis with an area under the curve of 0.635 (0.526-0.744), with a specificity of 76.7% and a sensitivity of 54.1% at the cut-off of 14.6 &mu;g/L. Using multivariable models cardiac fibrosis was significantly associated with the logGAL-3.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 40(4) 307-315
Contributi scientifici - Scientific Papers
Stato dell’arte dell’immunodosaggio dei peptidi natriuretici di tipo B
State of the art of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) immunoassays
<p>Recent studies have demonstrated that the&nbsp;precursor of BNP (proBNP) constitutes the major part of BNP-related peptides detectable in plasma of patients with&nbsp;heart failure by the commercially available immunoassays considered specific for the BNP hormone. Since proBNP&nbsp;significantly cross-reacts with commercial immunoassays for BNP, manufacturers should test and clearly declare the&nbsp;cross-reaction with proBNP in their BNP methods. Owing to the differences in cross-reaction with proBNP as well as&nbsp;in specificity, respectively, for the NH2- or COOH-terminal part of the peptide hormone chain, BNP immunoassays show&nbsp;significant between-method differences. Immunoassays for NT-proBNP, which all use standard materials and&nbsp;antibodies provided by the same company, show lower differences (generally minore del 20%). Clinicians should take into&nbsp;account these differences among methods when they compare results obtained from different laboratories, which use&nbsp;different BNP immunoassays. Accordingly, the use of a common decisional limit for all BNP immunoassay methods,&nbsp;as suggested by the most recent international guidelines, may be unreliable.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 39(5) 312-325
Rassegne - Reviews
Rilevanza clinica e interpretazione dei marcatori biochimici nello scompenso cardiaco
Clinical relevance and interpretation of biochemical markers in heart failure
<p>Heart failure (HF) is a global&nbsp;problem with an estimated prevalence of 38 million patients worldwide. Both prevalence and incidence of HF increase&nbsp;progressively with population ageing (prevalence &ge;10% in people &gt;75 years), especially in the high-income countries.&nbsp;HF is considered as the fatal event of all cardiovascular disorders. Despite some progress in diagnosis and treatment,&nbsp;its prognosis is worse than that of most cancers. The disease is heterogeneous in its clinical presentation and the&nbsp;diagnosis is not based on a single test, but on a combination of the history, physical examination and appropriate&nbsp;investigations, including some laboratory tests. As a consequence, the accuracy of diagnosis by clinical signs alone&nbsp;is often inadequate, especially in the early asymptomatic stage of HF. For these reasons, there is an increasing&nbsp;interest in the development of new biomarkers useful for the diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of patients with HF.&nbsp;The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of biomarkers recommended by international guidelines for HF,&nbsp;discussing their clinical impact and the interpretation of results. Furthermore, a possible strategy for the development&nbsp;and evaluation of novel prognostic biomarkers for HF will be suggested.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 39(4) 241-255
Rassegne - Reviews
Biomarcatori cardiaci: dove stiamo andando?
Cardiac biomarkers: where are we going?
<p>The measurement of cardiac troponins (cTn) is recommended by all guidelines as the gold standard for the detection of differential myocardial injury and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In this article, some key issues regarding both analytical characteristics of the high-sensitivity methods for cTn, which are still considered controversial or unresolved are discussed in details. These issues have been included in the activities of the Joint Working Group on &ldquo;Cardiac Biomarkers&rdquo; of the Italian Society of Clinical Biochemistry and the Italian branch of the European Ligand Assay Society. The major clinical concern regarding hs-cTn methods is the difficulty to differentiate the pathophysiological mechanism responsible for biomarker release from cardiomyocytes after reversible or irreversible injury, respectively. High-sensitivity cTnI and cTnT methods (hs-cTn) enable to monitor myocardial renewal and remodelling, and to promptly identify patients at highest risk of heart failure. In addition, several studies demonstrated that the cardiovascular risk progressively increases in the general population even for hs-cTn values well below the 99th percentile, i.e. the recognized cut-off for the detection of myocardial injury and diagnosis of AMI. An early and effective treatment of individuals at higher cardiovascular risk may revert the initial myocardial remodelling and slow down heart failure progression. Finally, recent studies support the working hypothesis that a new generation of hs-cTn methods should be set up based on monoclonal antibodies, specific for circulating peptide forms more characteristics for reversible rather than irreversible myocardial injury. Of course, screening programs of cardiovascular risk stratification and prevention strategies using hs-cTn methods require further investigation to define the optimal target populations, timing of measurement, and preventive interventions.</p>
Biochimica Clinica ; 17(1)
Documenti - Documents